Comparing FOP and JasperReports

UPDATE: this is a pretty old article, but still popular, if you want to know more about Jasper Reports I recommend JasperReports 3.6 Development Cookbook

Anybody looking for OSS reporting solutions in Java usually has to make a choice between Apache FOP and Jasper Reports*. While having somewhat different feature sets and addressing distinct reporting solutions, the two APIs boil down to the same basic thing : generate a report from an XML file (or stream/string/whatever). FOP has a clear advantage of standardization (based on XSL-Formatting Objects) while Jasper plays more in the pragmatic field of obtaining those 80% results with a minimum of effort and uses a proprietary XML format.

But FOP is not a standalone reporting solution : it’s just a way of transforming XSL-FO files into a report. In order to fill the report with the necessary data, the obvious choice is a templating engine such as Jakarta Velocity. Thus a FOP report creation is a two-step operation :

- create the XML report via Velocity - feed the XML stream to FOP

Jasper alleviates this problem by including its own binding engine, the only restriction being that input data should support some constraints (such as putting your ‘rows’ inside a JRDataSource).

Both Jasper and FOP allow inclusion of graphic files inside, usual formats (GIF, JPEG) are supported, however FOP has a nice bonus of rendering SVG inside reports. Unfortunately, this comes with the price of using Batik SVG Toolkit, which is a bulky (close to 2MB) and rather slow API. While processing your dynamic charts as XML files (Velocity again) is a seducing idea, the abysmal performance of SVG rendering will make you give up in no time. Unfortunately, I speak from experience.

At first sight, FOP has a lot more options for output format, compared to Jasper Reports. Of course there’s PDF and direct printing via AWT, but also Postscript, PCL, MIF as well as SVG. These choices are quite intriguing, since Postscript and PCL are printing formats (easily obtained by redirecting the specific printer queue into a file), MIF is a rather obscure Adobe format (for Framemaker) and SVG … well, a SVG report is too darn slow to be useable (yes, I was foolish enough to try this, too). Jasper makes again a pragmatic choice by allowing really useful output formats such as HTML, CSV and XSL (never underestimate the power of Excel); and of course: direct printing via AWT and PDF.

While FOP’s latest version (0.20.5) was released almost a year ago (summer 2003), Jasper Reports is bubbling with activity – Teodor releases a minor version each one or two months (latest being 0.5.3 at 18.05.2004).

I’ve decided to use as a ‘lab rat’ one of the apps developed during my ‘startup days’: the client GUI is written in Swing and features a few mildly complex reports generated using Velocity+FOP. FOP version is 0.20.4 (the current version back in Q1-2003, when we had to quit dreaming about the ‘next financing round’ and development halted) but as I already told you FOP has evolved little since then. Though, it’s perfectly reasonable to use this implementation as a witness for comparison with Jasper (on the opposite, Jasper has evolved a great deal since Q1-2003).

Back then, the report development cycle was quite simplistic. In fact, the XSL-FO templates were written by hand inside a text editor and the application code was run (via a Junit testcase and some necessary configuration and business data mocking) in order to generate a PDF report. In the case of errors, we had feedback by examining the error traces. Visual feedback was given by the PDF output. While simple to perform, this cycle was extremely tiresome after a while as there was an important overhead : start a new JVM, initialize FOP, fire Acrobat Reader (plus we were using some crappy – even by the standards of 2003 – 1GHz machines w 256/512MB RAM). A WYSIWYG editor would have been nice, so one of my coworkers has made some research and the only solution he found was XMLSpy (Stylevision not available back then) – but, at 800USD/seat this was ‘a bit’ pricey** for us (only the Enterprise flavor covers FO WYSIWYG editing !?). Another interesting idea was to use one of the conversion tools (from RTF to FOP) such as Jfor, XMLMind or rtf2fo (of these products, only Jfor is free, but feature-poor). What stopped us from doing it was that the generated FO was overly complex : we needed comprehensible cut_the_crap files because we were going to integrate inside Velocity templates. And when you have tens of tags and blocks inside blocks and not the slightest idea which one is a row, which one is a column and which one is a transparent dumbass artefact, it’s a gruesome trial-and-error task to integrate even simple VTL loops. And you’d have to do this each time you change something in the report : yikes ! Conclusion : the report development cycle was primitive for FOP and there was no way we could change it.

Things are quite different for Jasper Report : there are a lot of available report designers, and some of them are free. While the complete list is on Jasper Report site, I’d like to note at least three of them :

- iReport is a Swing editor and very interesting because it’s not only covering the basic Jasper functionality but also supplementary features such as barcode support (which is admittedly as easy as embedding a barcode font in Jasper with two lines of XML, but much easier to make it via a mouse click). iReport is free, which is excellent, but is a standalone app without IDE integration, and as any complex Swing app is quite slow and a memory hog. - if you are a developer using Eclipse, you’d appreciate two graphical editors based on Eclipse GEF, available as Eclipse plugins : JasperAssistant and SunshineReports. None of them is free and, at least on paper, the functionality seem identical, but SunshineReports has only the older 1.1 version downloadable, which is free but does NOT work with recent builds of Eclipse 3. How the heck am I supposed to test it ? On the contrary, Assistant has a much more relaxed attitude allowing the download of a free trial for the latest version of their product. Maybe too relaxed, though, because – even if (theoretically) limited in number of usages – you can use the trial as much as you want to***. But if you are serious about doing Jasper in Eclipse you should probably buy Assistant, available for a rather decent 59USD price tag. I am currently using it and it’s a good tool.

So much for the tools, let’s get the job done. The bad part : if you’re experienced with FO templates, don’t expect to be immediately proficient with Jasper, even with a GUI editor. The structure of an FO document has powerful analogies with HTML : you have tables, rows, cells, stuff like that, inside special constructs called blocks. It’s relatively easy to use a language such as VTL in order to create nested tables, alternating colors and other data layout tricks. You can even render a tree-organized data via a recursive VTL macro, and everything is smooth and easy to understand. Jasper is completely different and at first sight you’ll be shocked by its apparent lack of functionality : only rectangles, lines, ellipses, images, boilerplate text and fields (variable text). Each one of this elements has an extensive set of properties about when the element should be displayed, stretch type, associated expression for value and so on. Basically, you’d have to write Java code instead of Velocity macros and call this code from the corresponding properties of various report elements. If at the beginning it feels a little awkward, after a while it comes quite natural and simple. As for nesting and other advanced layouts, there is a powerful concept of ‘subreport’. And yes I’ve managed to render a tree using a recursive subreport, but given the poor performance the final choice was to flatten the data into a vector then feed it into a simple Jasper report. So pay attention to the depth of ‘subreporting’.

Once the reports were completely migrated, I’ve benchmarked a simple one (without SVG, charts, barcodes or other ‘exotic’ characteristics). The test machine is a 2.4GHz P4 w 512MB Toshiba Satellite laptop. In the case of FOP, the compiled velocity template and the FOP Driver are cached between successive runs. In the case of Jasper, the report is precompiled and loaded only on first run, then refilled with new data before each generation. The lazy loading and caching of reporting engines is the cause of important time differences between the generation of the first report and the subsequent reports. Delta memory is measured after garbage collection. The values presented are median for 10 runs of the ‘benchmark report’.

First run

Subsequent runs

Delta memory

Velocity + FOP




Jasper Reports




While I am totally pro-Jasper after this short experiment, it is important to note that commercial and well-maintained FO rendering engines such as RenderX XEP claim improved performance upon FOP. Depending on your requirements, environment and reporting legacy apps, an FO-based solution might be better, especially when report generation is only on server-side.

Of course, usual disclaimer apply: this benchmark is valid only for my specific report in my specific application so YMMV.

* While I am aware that other OSS solutions do exist for Java, I consider these two as ‘mainstream’.

** Did I mentioned that we were a startup with financing problems ?

*** No, I’m not going to explain here how it can be done.